Beyond Illusion and Doubt
Beyond Illusion and Doubt
Here’s a fascinating series of insights into some of Western philosophy's salient ideas and a concise yet thorough presentation of the basics of bhakti-yoga.
“To err is human” applies equally to the layman and the philosopher. Each philosopher tends to arrive at a different set of answers to the fundamental questions. This constant overhauling of philosophies throughout Western history can make the study of philosophy frustrating, especially for people consulting philosophers not just to play an intellectual game but to find practical answers to life’'s most perplexing questions.
Chapter 1: Socrates
Chapter 2: Plato
Chapter 3: Aristotle
Chapter 4: Origen
Chapter 5: Augustine
Chapter 6: Thomas Aquinas
Chapter 7: Kierkegaard
Chapter 8: Schopenhauer
Chapter 9: Darwin
Chapter 10: John Stuart Mill
Chapter 11: Marx
Chapter 12: Nietzsche
Chapter 13: Freud
Chapter 14: Sartre
Chapter 15: Carl Jung
An Introduction to ISKCON and the Hare Krishna Way of Life
Sanskrit Pronunciation Guide
Socrates (470?–399? BC) was a thorn in the side of the leaders of ancient Athens, who saw him as a corruptor of young men. The problem was that he was uncompromising in his search for an objective understanding of such moral virtues as justice, courage, and piety, and he passed on this spirit to his students, most notably Plato. And in the process, the leaders contended, he neglected the gods of the state. He taught all who would listen to engage in self-examination and tend to their souls. Even today, many have heard of Socrates’ instruction to “know thyself,” but what does it mean? Here Srila Prabhupada explains that to really know the self one must know the Supreme Self, Krishna.
Disciple: Socrates strongly opposed the Sophists, a group of speculators who taught that the standards of right and wrong and of truth and falsity were completely relative, being established solely by individual opinion or social convention. Socrates, on the other hand, seemed convinced that there was an absolute, universal truth or good, beyond mere speculation and opinion, that could be known clearly and with certainty.
Srila Prabhupada: He was correct. For our part, we accept Krishna, God, as the supreme authority, the Absolute Truth. Krishna is by definition supreme perfection, and philosophy is perfect when it is in harmony with Him. This is our position. The philosophy of the Krishna consciousness movement is religious in the sense that it is concerned with carrying out the orders of God. That is the sum and substance of religion. It is not possible to manufacture a religion. In the Bhagavad-gita and Srimad-Bhagavatam, manufactured religion is called kaitava-dharma, just another form of cheating.
Our basic principle is dharman tu sakshad bhagavat-pranitam.The word dharma refers to the orders given by God, and if we follow those orders we are following dharma. An individual citizen cannot manufacture laws, since laws are given by the government. Our perfection lies in following the orders of God cent percent. Those who have no conception of God or His orders may manufacture religious systems, but our system is different.
Disciple: The Socratic dialectic usually sought to gradually arrive at an understanding of the essence of a particular moral virtue—for example, self-control, piety, courage, or justice—by examining proposed definitions for completeness and consistency. Socrates wanted to establish more than just a list of universal definitions, however. He tried to show that any particular virtue, when understood in depth, was not different from all the others. The unity of the virtues thus implied the existence of a single absolute good. For Socrates, the goal of life is to rise by means of the intellect to a realization of this absolute good. A person who had attained such knowledge of the good would be self-realized in that he would always do the good without fail. A soul who had thus realized the good was said to be in a healthy or sound state, or to have attained wisdom. Socrates’ name for the single absolute good was “knowledge.”
Could one say that Socrates was a kind of jnana-yogi?
Srila Prabhupada: Socrates was a muni, a great thinker. However, the real truth comes to such a muni after many, many births. As Krishna says in the Bhagavad-gita [7.19]:
bahunan janmanam ante
jnanavan man prapadyate
vasudevah sarvam iti
sa mahatma su-durlabhah
“After many births and deaths, one who is actually in knowledge surrenders unto Me, knowing Me to be the cause of all causes and all that is. Such a great soul is very rare.”
People like Socrates are known as jnanavan, wise men, and after many births they surrender themselves to Krishna. They do not do so blindly, but knowing that the Supreme Personality of Godhead is the source of everything. However, this process of self-searching for knowledge takes time. If we take the instructions of Krishna directly and surrender unto Him, we save time and many, many births.
Disciple: Socrates terms his method maieutic, that is, like that of a midwife. He thought that a soul could not really come to knowledge of the good by the imposition of information from an external source. Rather, such knowledge had to be awakened within the soul itself. The teacher’s business is to direct, encourage, and prod a soul until it gives birth to the truth. The maieutic method therefore suggests that since the soul is able to bring the truth out of itself, knowledge is really a kind of recollection or remembrance. If so, then there must have been a previous life in which the soul possessed the knowledge it has forgotten. This suggests, then, that the soul (understood as something involving intelligence and memory) exists continuously through many lives and, indeed, is eternal.
Srila Prabhupada: Yes, the soul is eternal. And because the soul is eternal, the intelligence, mind, and senses are also eternal. However, they are all now covered by a material coating, which must be cleansed. Once this material coating is washed away, the real mind, intelligence, and senses will emerge. That is stated in the Narada-pancaratra: tat-paratvena nirmalam. The purificatory process takes place when one is in touch with the transcendental loving service of the Lord and is chanting the Hare Krishna maha-mantra. Chaitanya Mahaprabhu said, cheto-darpana-marjanam: one must cleanse the heart. All misconceptions come from misunderstanding one’s real nature and one’s relationship with God. We are all part and parcel of God, yet somehow or other we have forgotten this. Previously we rendered service to God, but now we are rendering service to something illusory. This is maya. Whether we are liberated or conditioned, our constitutional position is to render service. In the material world we work according to our different capacities—as a politician, a thinker, a poet, or whatever. But if we are disconnected from Krishna, all of this is maya. When we perform our duty in order to develop Krishna consciousness, our duty enables liberation from this bondage.
Disciple: It is interesting that nowadays we find the kind of relativism taught by the Sophists to be again very widespread: “If you believe it, then it’s true for you.” Socrates took up the task of vigorously combating this position, trying to demonstrate by strong arguments that there must be an absolute truth that is distinguishable from the relative and that must be categorically acknowledged by everyone.
Srila Prabhupada: That is what we are also doing. The Absolute Truth is true for everyone, and the relative truth is relative to a particular position. The relative truth depends on the Absolute Truth, which is the summum bonum. God is the Absolute Truth, and the material world is relative truth. Because the material world is God’s energy, it appears to be real or true, just as the reflection of the sun in water emits some light. But that reflection is not independent of the sun, and as soon as the sun sets, that light will disappear. The Absolute Truth is Krishna, and this cosmos is relative truth, a manifestation of Krishna’s external energy. If Krishna withdrew His energy, the cosmos would not exist.
In another sense, Krishna and Krishna’s energy are not different. We cannot separate heat from fire; heat is also fire, yet heat is not fire. This is the position of relative truth. As soon as we experience heat, we understand that there is fire. Yet we cannot say that heat is fire. Relative truth is like heat because it stands on the strength of the Absolute Truth, just as heat stands on the strength of fire. Because the Absolute is true, relative truth also appears to be true, although it has no independent existence. A mirage appears to be water because in actuality there is such a thing as water. Similarly, this material world appears attractive because there is actually an all-attractive spiritual world.
Disciple: Socrates held that the highest duty of man was to “care for his soul,” that is, to cultivate that healthy state of soul which is true knowledge, the attainment of the good. When a man becomes fixed in such knowledge he will as a matter of course act correctly in all affairs, he will be beyond the dictates of the passions, and he will remain peaceful and undisturbed in every circumstance. Socrates himself seems to have attained such a state, as his own behavior at the time of his death illustrates: he calmly drank the poison hemlock rather than give up his principles. He seems to have realized knowledge of at least some aspect of the Absolute Truth, although we must add that he never spoke of it as a person or gave it a personal name.
Srila Prabhupada: That is the preliminary stage of understanding the Absolute, known as Brahman realization, realization of the impersonal feature. One who advances further attains Paramatma realization, realization of the localized feature, whereby one realizes that God is everywhere. It is a fact that God is everywhere, but at the same time God has His own abode (goloka eva nivasaty akhilatma-bhutah). God is a person, and He has His own abode and associates. Although He is in His abode, He is present everywhere, within every atom (andantara-stha-paramanu-cayantara-stham). Like other impersonalists, Socrates cannot understand how God, through His potency, can remain in His own abode and simultaneously be present in every atom. The material world is His expansion, His energy (bhumir apo ’nalo vayuh khan mano buddhir eva ca). Because His energy is expanded everywhere, He can be present everywhere. Although the energy and the energetic are nondifferent, we cannot say that they are not distinct. They are simultaneously one and different. This is the perfect philosophy of achintya-bhedabheda-tattva, inconceivable simultaneous oneness and difference.
Disciple: Socrates held that “all the virtues are one thing—knowledge.” He saw goodness and knowledge as inseparable. This union of the two seems to reflect features of sattva-guna as described in the Bhagavad-gita.
Srila Prabhupada: Sattva-guna, the mode of goodness, is a position from which we can receive knowledge. Knowledge cannot be received from the platform of passion and ignorance. If we hear about Krishna, or God, we are gradually freed from the clutches of darkness and passion. Then we can come to the platform of sattva-guna, and when we are perfectly situated there, we are beyond the lower modes. In the words of Srimad-Bhagavatam [1.2.18–19]:
nashta-prayeshv abhadreshu nityan bhagavata-sevaya
bhagavaty uttama-shloke bhaktir bhavati naishthiki
tada rajas-tamo-bhavah kama-lobhadayash ca ye
ceta etair anaviddhan sthitan sattve prasidati
“For one who regularly attends classes on Srimad-Bhagavatam and renders service to the pure devotee, all that is troublesome to the heart is almost completely destroyed, and loving service unto the Personality of Godhead, who is praised with transcendental songs, is established as an irrevocable fact. As soon as irrevocable loving service is established in the heart, the effects of nature’s modes of passion and ignorance, such as lust, desire, and hankering, disappear from the heart. Then the devotee is established in goodness, and he becomes completely happy.”
This process may be gradual, but it is certain. The more we hear about Krishna, the more we become purified. Purification means freedom from the attacks of greed and passion. Then we can become happy. From this platform of purity, known as the brahma-bhuta platform, we can realize ourselves and then realize God. So before realizing the Supreme Good, we must first come to the platform of sattva-guna, goodness. Therefore we have regulations prohibiting illicit sex, meat-eating, intoxication, and gambling. Ultimately we must transcend even the mode of goodness through bhakti. Then we become liberated, gradually develop love of God, and regain our original state (muktir hitvanyatha rupam). This means giving up all material engagements and rendering full service to Krishna. Then we attain the state where maya cannot touch us. If we keep in touch with Krishna, maya has no jurisdiction. Mayam etan taranti te. This is perfection.
Disciple: Socrates took the oracular gnothi seauton, “know thyself,” to enjoin “care of the soul.” Care of the soul, as we have seen, involved an intense intellectual endeavor, a kind of introspective contemplation or meditation. It gradually purified the self, detaching it more and more from the body and its passions. Thus through the contemplative endeavor entailed by “know thyself,” a person attained knowledge and self-control, and with that he also became happy.
Srila Prabhupada: Yes, that is a fact. Meditation means analyzing the self and searching for the Absolute Truth. That is described in the Vedic literatures:
dhyanavasthita-tad-gatena manasa pashyanti yan yoginah. Through meditation, the yogi sees the Supreme Truth (Krishna, or God) within himself. Krishna is there. The yogi consults with Krishna, and Krishna advises him. That is the relationship Krishna has with the yogi. Dadami buddhi-yogan tam. When one is purified, he is always seeing Krishna within himself. This is confirmed in the Brahma-sanhita [5.38]:
santah sadaiva hridayeshu vilokayanti
yan shyamasundaram acintya-guna-svarupan
govindam adi-purushan tam ahan bhajami
“I worship the primeval Lord, Govinda, who is always seen by the devotee whose eyes are anointed with the pulp of love. He is seen in His eternal form of Shyamasundara, situated within the heart of the devotee.”
Thus an advanced saintly person is always seeing Krishna. In this verse, the word shyamasundara means “blackish but at the same time extraordinarily beautiful.” Being the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Krishna is of course very beautiful. The word achintya means that He has inconceivable, unlimited qualities. Although He is situated everywhere, as Govinda He is always dancing in Vrindavana with the gopis.There He plays with His friends and sometimes, acting as a naughty boy, teases His mother. These pastimes of the Supreme Person are described in the Srimad-Bhagavatam.
Disciple: As far as we know, Socrates himself had no teacher in philosophy. Indeed, he refers to himself as “self-made.” Do you believe that one can be self-taught? Can self-knowledge be attained through one’s own meditation or introspection?
Srila Prabhupada: Yes. Ordinarily everyone thinks according to the bodily conception. If I begin to study the different parts of my body and seriously begin to consider what I am, I will gradually arrive at the study of the soul. If I ask myself, “Am I this hand?” the answer will be “No, I am not this hand. Rather, this is my hand.” I can thus continue analyzing each part of the body and discover that all the parts are mine but that I am different. Through this method of self-study, any intelligent man can see that he is not the body. This is the first lesson of the Bhagavad-gita [2.13]:
dehino ’smin yatha dehe
kaumaran yauvanan jara
dhiras tatra na muhyati
“As the embodied soul continuously passes, in this body, from boyhood to youth to old age, the soul similarly passes into another body at death. A sober person is not bewildered by such a change.”
At one time I had the body of a child, but now that body no longer exists. Nonetheless, I am aware that I possessed such a body; therefore from this I can deduce that I am something other than the body. I may rent an apartment, but I do not identify with it. The body may be mine, but I am not the body. By this kind of introspection, a man can teach himself the distinction between the body and the soul.
As far as being completely self-taught, according to the Bhagavad-gita and the Vedic conception, life is continuous. Since we are always acquiring experience, we cannot actually say that Socrates was self-taught. Rather, in his previous lives he had cultivated knowledge, and this knowledge was simply continuing. That is a fact. Otherwise, why is one person intelligent and another ignorant? This is due to continuity of life through the process of transmigration of the soul.
Disciple: Socrates believed that through intellectual endeavor a person can attain knowledge or wisdom, which is nothing else but the possession of all the virtues in their unity. Such a person always acts in the right way and thus is happy. Therefore the enlightened man is meditative, knowledgeable, and virtuous. He is also happy because he acts properly.
Srila Prabhupada: Yes, that is confirmed in the Bhagavad-gita. [18.54] Brahma-bhutah prasannatma na shocati na kankshati: when one is self-realized, he immediately becomes happy, joyful (prasannatma). This is because he is properly situated. One may labor a long time under some mistaken idea, but when he finally comes to the proper conclusion, he becomes very happy. He thinks, “Oh, what a fool I was, going on so long in such a mistaken way!” Thus a self-realized person is happy.
Happiness means that one no longer has to think of attaining things. For instance, Dhruva Maharaja told the Lord, svamin kritartho ’smi varan na yace: “Having seen You, my Lord, I don’t want any material benediction.” Prahlada Maharaja also said, “My Lord, I don’t want material benefits. I have seen my father—who was such a big materialist that even the demigods were afraid of him—destroyed by You within a second. Therefore I am not after these things.”
So real knowledge means that one no longer hankers for anything. The karmis, jnanis, and yogis are all hankering after something. The karmis want material wealth, beautiful women, and good positions. If one is not hankering for what one does not have, he is lamenting for what he has lost. The jnanis are also hankering, expecting to become one with God and merge into His existence. And the yogis are hankering after some magical powers to befool others into thinking that they have become God. In India some yogis convince people that they can manufacture gold and fly in the sky, and foolish people believe them. Even if a yogi can fly, what is his great achievement? There are many birds flying. What is the difference? An intelligent person can understand this. If a person says that he will walk on water, thousands of fools will come to see him. People will even pay ten rupees just to see a man bark like a dog, not thinking that there are many dogs barking anyway. In any case, people are always hankering and lamenting, but the devotee is fully satisfied in the service of the Lord. He doesn’t hanker for anything, nor does he lament.
Disciple: Through jnana, the search for truth, Socrates may have realized Brahman. Could he have also realized Paramatma?
Srila Prabhupada: Yes.
Disciple: But what about the realization of Bhagavan, Krishna? I thought that Krishna can be realized only through bhakti, devotion.
Srila Prabhupada: Yes, one cannot enter into Krishna’s abode without being a purified devotee. Krishna states this in the Bhagavad-gita [18.55]: bhaktya mam abhijanati. “One can understand Me as I am only by devotional service.” Krishna never says that He can be understood by jnana, karma, or yoga. The personal abode of Krishna is especially reserved for the bhaktas, and the jnanis, yogis, and karmis cannot go there.
Disciple: Now, although Socrates described himself as “self-made,” he believed not only in the value of insight or meditation but also in the idea that knowledge can be imparted from one person to another. He therefore believed in the role of a guru, or teacher, which he himself was for many people.
Prabhupada: Yes, this is the standard Vedic principle—that to learn the truth one must approach a guru, or spiritual master. In the Bhagavad-gita [4.34] Krishna gives the same instruction:
tad viddhi pranipatena
upadekshyanti tad jnana
“Just try to learn the truth by approaching a spiritual master. Inquire from him submissively and render service unto him. The self-realized souls can impart knowledge unto you because they have seen the truth.” Here “seen the truth” means the spiritual master is constantly seeing the Lord within his heart. In other words, within his heart he can constantly see the Supreme Lord as the Supersoul and take advice from Him. In the Bhagavad-gita [10.10] Krishna confirms that He enlightens the pure devotee from within: dadami buddhi-yogan tam. “I give him intelligence.” These are the qualifications of a real spiritual master.
So, it seems that Socrates would give his disciples a chance to develop their understanding. That is a good process, and it is natural. It is just like when a father teaches his child to walk. First of all he helps the child, taking his hand: “Now walk, walk. Let me see how you walk.” Although the child sometimes falls down, the father will encourage, “Oh, you are doing very nicely. Now stand up again and walk.” Similarly, a genuine spiritual master gives his disciple a chance to develop his intelligence so he can think properly how to go back home, back to Godhead.
Disciple: What does it mean to “think properly how to go back home, back to Godhead”?
Srila Prabhupada: To always think of Krishna. We should act in such a way that we have to think of Krishna all the time. For instance, we are discussing Socratic philosophy in order to strengthen our Krishna consciousness. Therefore the ultimate goal is Krishna; otherwise we are not interested in criticizing or accepting anyone’s philosophy. We are neutral.
Disciple: So the proper use of intelligence is to guide everything in such a way that we become Krishna conscious?
Srila Prabhupada: That’s it. Without Krishna consciousness, we remain on the mental platform. Being on the mental platform means hovering. On that platform, we are not fixed. It is the business of the mind to accept this and reject that, but when we are fixed in Krishna consciousness we are no longer subjected to the mind’s acceptance or rejection.
From Socrates to Sartre, Western philosophers have grappled with the ultimate questions: “What is the meaning of life?” “Does God exist?” “What is the supreme Good, and how can we achieve it?” A thoughtful person should be eager to learn the solutions to these mysteries—yet he or she will look in vain for conclusive answers from Western thinkers. As brilliant as their writings are, they leave us in doubt, wondering if these questions can ever truly be answered.
“Yes, they can,” declares the author of Beyond Illusion and Doubt, His Divine Grace A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, whom scholars and spiritual leaders worldwide recognize as the most distinguished teacher of Indian culture and philosophy of the modern age. In this remarkable series of conversations on the ideas of fifteen leading Western philosophers, Srila Prabhupada points out the ideas’ good points and defects, presents the Vedic view, and outlines the process of yoga by which we can transcend illusion and doubt in our own lives and proceed with certainty on the path to perfection.