BG Chap 9 - Kṛṣṇa's form as the universe

Kṛṣṇa is the sacrifices mentioned in the śruti such as the jyotiṣṭoma and those mentioned in the smṛtis such as vaiśvadeva. He is the śrāddha rites offered to the Pitṛs, the food made from herbs, the mantras chanted in offering oblations to the devatās, ghee, the fire used for sacrifice and the act of offering oblations. Kṛṣṇa is situated as the soul of all those things. In other words, the Vedic sacrifices recommended in the karma-kāṇḍa division of the Vedas are in total also Kṛṣṇa. This implies that those who are engaged in rendering devotional service unto Kṛṣṇa are to be understood to have performed all the sacrifices recommended in the Vedas.

Kṛṣṇa is situated as the mother, father and the grandfather of all things in the universe. He is the father because He produces all the ingredients necessary to create the universe. He is the mother because He holds within His womb the universe. He is the grandfather because He produces Brahmā, the creator of the universe. In the form of kings and others, He is the maintainer and nourisher of all beings. Being the possessor of all spiritual and material energies, and the Paramātmā within all matter and jīvas, there is no problem for Him to maintain the universe. He is the object of all knowledge, and the purifier in the form of rivers like the Ganges. He is oṁ, the seed of all the Vedas and the cause of knowledge of Brahman, which is the real object of knowledge. He is also the three Vedas – Ṛg, Yajur and Sāma. The word ca indicates Atharva Veda. Ṛg also refers to the Vedic verses with regular syllables. Sāma refers to those verses with regular meter and which are sung. Some say that sāma refers to any verse which is sung. Yajur refers to verses not sung and with irregular syllables. These three types of mantras are useful in rites.

Kṛṣṇa is the method by which a goal is attained. He is the master, the controller, the witness of all sinful and pious acts, the abode and the deliverer from all dangers. He is the benefactor. He is situated in the acts of creation, destruction and maintenance, and in the nine treasures of Kuvera: padmanidhi, mahānidhi, saṅkhanidhi, makaranidhi, kacchapanidhi, mukundanidhi, nandanidhi, nīlanidhi and kharvanidhi. He is the indestructible cause or seed, unlike rice and other temporary seeds. He gives heat in the form of sun. During monsoon season, He releases rain in the form of clouds, and sometimes holds back rain to create a drought. He is liberation and bondage, and the subtle and the gross. Thus holding all powers, He is situated in the form of the whole universe with many names and forms. Some worship Him searching out the one person in these many things. Since Kṛṣṇa is both matter and spirit, the gigantic universal form comprising all material manifestations is also Kṛṣṇa, and His pastimes in Vṛndāvana as two-handed Śyāmasundara, playing on a flute, are those of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.