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BG Chap 10 - The vibhūtis of Kṛṣṇa - 41 thru 45

(41): Among purifiers or among swift things, Kṛṣṇa is the wind.
(42): Among wielders of weapon, He is Paraśurāma. Lord Rāma cannot be considered a vibhūti of Kṛṣṇa because a jīva can be considered a vibhūti but not the Supreme Lord Himself. Paraśurāma is an empowered jīva, who is an aveśāvatāra, who was given powers by the Lord. When a jīva is filled with portions of jñāna śakti or other śaktis of the Lord, he is called aveśāvatāra.
(43): Among fish, Kṛṣṇa is the makara or a shark. Makara is often considered a crocodile, the carrier of Gaṅga devī. However, in temple art it is a combination of many animals: jaws of a crocodile with pointed teeth, scales of a fish, the tail of a peacock, the trunk of an elephant, the eyes of a monkey, and the tusks of a boar.
(44): Among flowing rivers, Kṛṣṇa is Gaṅga.
(45): Of all creations, Kṛṣṇa is the beginning, middle and end. He is the creation, maintenance and destruction of all material elements. One should meditate upon creation, maintenance and destruction as His vibhūtis. Previously (BG 10.20), Kṛṣṇa said He was the beginning, middle and end of all living beings. This was in reference to the bodies of the living entities, His conscious parts. Here (BG 10.32) Kṛṣṇa refers to the material elements, and thus there is no repetition.

BG Chap 10 - The vibhūtis of Kṛṣṇa - 46 thru 50

(46): Among types of knowledge, He is knowledge of the soul. The four Vedas with its six aṅgas, mīmāṁsā, nyāya, dharma śāstra and purāṇas are considered the fourteen types of knowledge. The six aṅgas are: Śikṣa (pronunciation), chandas (meter), vyākaraṇa (grammar), nirukta (meaning), jyotiṣa (astrology) and kalpa (ritual). Nyāya refers to logic such as Gautama’s Nyāya. Mīmāṁsā refers to both Karma Mīmāṁsā and Vedānta. Among these types of knowledge, Kṛṣṇa is knowledge concerning ātmā, the knowledge of Vedānta, which has four chapters, and which defines Paramātmā and His associates. The first chapter of Vedānta shows Brahman as the subject of the Vedas. The second chapter solves all contradictions between the statements of different scriptures. The third chapter deals with sādhana for attaining Brahman. The fourth chapter describes the attainment of Brahman.
(47): Among types of debate, Kṛṣṇa is vāda. Vāda, jalpa and vitaṇḍa are famous as the three types of argument. When both parties desire to win by establishing their own opinion with false proofs and arguments, and by refuting the opponent’s view with circumvention (chala), false generalization (jāti) and syllogistic fault (nigraha-sthāna), it is called jalpa. When one party refutes the opponent’s view (by the above means), without establishing his own opinion, it is called vitaṇḍa. These two types of debate, with a desire to win, simply display skill in debating and bear no result. That discussion having a desire for truth is called vāda. Vāda uses proper logic and pramāṇas, takes into consideration both points of view, in order to arrive at the truth. Being outstanding for being fruitful in determining truth, vāda is Kṛṣṇa’s vibhūti.
(48): Among letters, Kṛṣṇa is the letter ‘A’. A-kāra, the first letter of the Sanskrit alphabet, is the beginning of the Vedic literature. Without a-kāra, nothing can be sounded; therefore it is the beginning of sound.
(49): Among compound words, He is the dvandva or the dual compound, in which both elements have equal importance, e.g. rāma-kṛṣṇa. The other compounds are: avyayībhāva, in which the first element is more important – e.g. adhyātma (adhi ātmā), in the soul; tat-puruṣa, in which the second element is more important – e.g. guṇātita (guṇa atita), surpassing the guṇas; bahu-vrīhi in which both elements are unimportant depending on reference to a third element – e.g. mahā-bahuḥ, one who has strong arms.
(50): Among destroyers, Kṛṣṇa is indestructible time, which according to Baladeva Vidyābhūṣaṇa is the fire of universal destruction emanating from the mouth of Saṅkarṣaṇa, and according to Viśvanātha Cakravarti is Mahākāla, Rudra, who is famous as the destroyer.

BG Chap 10 - The vibhūtis of Kṛṣṇa - 51 thru 60

(51): Among creators, Kṛṣṇa is the four-headed Brahmā.
(52): Among all types of deaths happening at every moment, Kṛṣṇa is death which takes away all memory. SB 11.22.39 says death is extreme forgetfulness. (This implies that there are not various kinds of deaths but that we die at every moment, and when we leave the body, it is total forgetfulness). Kṛṣṇa is all-devouring death.
(53): Among the transformations of the body that will take place for the living beings in the future, Kṛṣṇa is the first one, the birth. He is the generating principle of all that is yet to be.
(54): Among women, He is Kīrti (fame),
(55): Śrī (fortune),
(56): Vāk (fine speech),
(57): Smṛti (memory),
(58): Medhā (intelligence),
(59): Dhṛti (steadfastness), and
(60): Kṣamā (patience).
These seven are considered among the wives of Dharma. Just by possessing a reflection of their qualities men become praiseworthy. Kīrti means fame because of good qualities like religiosity. Śrī means wealth in the areas of dharma, artha and kāma. It also means effulgence of the body. Vāk means cultured language which can express anything. Smṛti is the power of remembering things which have been experienced. Medhā is the power of understanding the meaning of many scriptures. Dhṛti is the power to extinguish agitation when it appears. Kṣamā is the power to remain with unchanging heart on receiving either joy or sorrow.

BG Chap 10 - The vibhūtis of Kṛṣṇa - 61 thru 65

(61): Among the sāmas, special hymns based on the words of Ṛg Veda, Kṛṣṇa is Bṛhad Sāma, which starts with tvām iddhi havāmahe, and is chanted at the end of ceremonies praising Indra for his having great powers.
(62): Among verses endowed with regular meter and lines, Kṛṣṇa is the gāyatrī verse, being most excellent because it gives second birth to the three higher castes, and also it is regarded as non different from Brahman. There are many verses in gāyatrī meter. The verse in gāyatrī meter which is famous as the initiation mantra for the second born is also called gāyatrī.
(63): Among months, He is Mārgaśīrṣa, when there is a supply of new grains.
(64): Among seasons He is the flower bearing spring. In spring there are many festivals celebrating Kṛṣṇa.
(65): Kṛṣṇa is the gambling of the cheats, who gamble with dice and lose everything. As the Supreme, Kṛṣṇa can be more deceitful than any mere man. If Kṛṣṇa chooses to deceive a person, no one can surpass Him in His deceit. His greatness is not simply one-sided-it is all-sided.

BG Chap 10 - The vibhūtis of Kṛṣṇa - 66 thru 70

(66): He is the splendor of the splendid.
(67): He is the victory of the conquerors,
(68): the endeavor which yield results of those who endeavor, and
(69): the strength of the strong. When Kṛṣṇa was present on earth, no one could surpass Him in strength. Even in His childhood He lifted Govardhana Hill.
(70): Among Vṛṣṇis, Kṛṣṇa is Vāsudeva. Baladeva Vidyābhūṣaṇa says Vāsudeva, the son of Vasudeva, here refers to Balarāma and not to Kṛṣṇa, because it is wrong to call His svarūpa a vibhūti. Viśvanātha Cakravarti says that Vāsudeva refers to Vasudeva, Kṛṣṇa’s father. Sometimes the long ā can have the same meaning as short a. The long ā is used to indicate self-interest. Though Kapila and others mentioned in this chapter as vibhūtis are directly the Lord, and thus the creators and destroyers of the material world, calling them vibhūtis is acceptable, by meditating on them as avatāra expansions of Kṛṣṇa. It should be understood that the expansions, though non-different from Kṛṣṇa in potencies, do not manifest all of the potencies or qualities in their particular forms.

BG Chap 10 - The vibhūtis of Kṛṣṇa -71 thru 78

(71): Among the Pāṇḍavas, Kṛṣṇa is Arjuna, because Arjuna is also an avatāra of Kṛṣṇa – Nara in Nara-Nārāyaṇa.
(72): Among sages, He is Vyāsa, who is also an avatāra.
(73): Among great thinkers, who discern the subtle meaning of things, He is Śukra (Uśanā), who is the teacher of the asuras.
(74): Among all means of suppressing lawlessness, Kṛṣṇa is punishment by which those who deviate return to the correct path.
(75): Of those who seek victory, He is morality.
(76): Of secrets, He is silence, which also means He is meditation among hearing, deliberating and meditating. It is better than hearing and deliberating because it is not separated from the final goal of realization of God.
(77): In relation to persons with knowledge of matter and spirit, He is knowledge of those matters.
(78): Kṛṣṇa is the seed which causes all living entities to manifest because no moving or non moving entity can exist without Him. Without Kṛṣṇa nothing can exist and they would be false things. Whatever existence is not founded on the energy of Kṛṣṇa is called māyā, "that which is not”. Whenever we see anything, we can think ‘the existence of this person, this tree, this building, this universe rests upon Kṛṣṇa. Nothing exists without Him’.

BG Chap 10 - A spark of Kṛṣṇa's splendor

There is no end to the divine manifestations (vibhūtis) of Kṛṣṇa, and what He had described is but a mere indication to His infinite opulences, for He had spoken only one portion of the breadth of the topic. As stated in the Vedic literature, although the opulences and energies of the Supreme are understood in various ways, there is no limit to such opulences; therefore not all the opulences and energies can be explained. Simply a few examples are being described to Arjuna to pacify his inquisitiveness. All opulent, beautiful and glorious creations spring from but a spark of Kṛṣṇa’s splendor. Whatever object in past, present or future displays majesty, excellence or strength arises and gains its perfection from a fragment of His power. Anything extraordinarily opulent should be considered to represent Kṛṣṇa's opulence. All these forms and things are non different from Kṛṣṇa being under His control and being pervaded by Him.

BG Chap 10 - The way Kṛṣṇa supports and maintains the creation

Having spoken of the vibhūtis individually, Kṛṣṇa speaks of them as a whole by saying there is no use of knowing all these individual vibhūtis because with a single fragment of Himself, He pervades and supports the entire universe. By the Paramātmā, fixing Himself in the world He created, supporting this world by being its basis, superintending the world by being its ruler, controlling the world by beings its controller (‘Everything is in Me’), pervading the world by being all pervading (‘I am in everything’), and creating the world by being its cause, Kṛṣṇa remains in this world. Kṛṣṇa does all these thru the three puruṣas, who are the antaryāmīs of prakṛti (Mahā-Viṣṇu), samaṣṭi-jīva (Garbhodakaśāyī Viṣṇu, who is the Supersoul of the collective jīvas) and vyaṣṭi-jīva (Kṣīrodakaśāyī Viṣṇu, who is the Supersoul in every jīva). Though there are three puruṣas, they are to be understood as just one of the parts of Kṛṣṇa. It should be understood that creation, containment, pervasion and maintenance are all vibhūtīs of Kṛṣṇa.

BG Chap 10 - Chapter Summary

If one thoroughly studies the different descriptions of the opulences and expansions of Kṛṣṇa's energy, then one can understand without any doubt the position of Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa and can fix his mind in the worship of Kṛṣṇa without deviation. The Lord is all-pervading by the expansion of His partial representation, the Supersoul, who enters into everything that is. Pure devotees, therefore, concentrate their minds in Kṛṣṇa consciousness in full devotional service; therefore they are always situated in the transcendental position. Devotional service and worship of Kṛṣṇa are very clearly indicated in this chapter in verses eight through eleven. That is the way of pure devotional service. By Kṛṣṇa’s energy alone the universe is maintained, and by a small particle of His energy, the sun derives its intense heat, and all other objects possess their powers. By intelligence given by that realization, one should taste His sweetness. This Kṛṣṇa is worshipped in this tenth chapter.

The importance of Kṛṣṇa in this chapter:

10.1 – Kṛṣṇa’s supreme word – parama vacaḥ
10.1 – Arjuna is Kṛṣṇa’s beloved – prīyamāṇāya
10.2 – To understand Kṛṣṇa - Neither the devas nor the ṛṣis understand my powers – na me viduḥ sura-gaṇāḥ prabhavam na maharṣayaḥ
10.2 – Kṛṣṇa is the source of the sages and demigods – aham ādir hi devānāṁ
10.3 – To understand Kṛṣṇa - one who understands me as unborn, beginningless and Lord of the universe is freed from all sins – yo mām ajam anādim ca vetti loka-maheśvaram
10.4, 10.5 – Kṛṣṇa is the source of all qualities like intelligence, knowledge, nonviolence, fame etc
10.6 – The sages and Manus come from Kṛṣṇa’s mind
10.7 - Kṛṣṇa’s abounding power and yoga knowing which one is absorbed in yoga
10.8 – Kṛṣṇa is the source of everything – ahaṁ sarvasya prabhavaḥ
10.8 – Everything comes from Kṛṣṇa – mattaḥ sarvaṁ pravartate
10.8 – Meditating on Kṛṣṇa - budhā bhāva-samanvitāḥ – the wise offer their love being fully immersed in feelings of love
10.9 – Thought focused on Kṛṣṇa - mac-cittā – With their thought on me
10.9 – Life dedicated to Kṛṣṇa – mat-gata-prāṇā
10.9 – Talks dedicated about Kṛṣṇa – kathayantaś ca mām
10.9 – All these give satisfaction and bliss – tuṣyanti ca ramanti ca
10.10 – Coming to Kṛṣṇa - yena mām upayānti te – by buddhi yoga they come close to me
10.11 – Kṛṣṇa dispels the darkness – aham ajñāna-jam tamaḥ nāśayāmi
10.12 – Kṛṣṇa is the supreme Brahman, supreme abode, supreme purifier, original Lord
10.13 –All sages describe Kṛṣṇa
10.14 – Neither the devas nor the demons know Kṛṣṇa
10.15 – Only Kṛṣṇa knows Himself by Himself
10.15 – Kṛṣṇa is the source of all, Lord of all, God of gods and master of the universe
10.19 - Kṛṣṇa’s powers are endless
10.20-39 - Kṛṣṇa’s opulences are described
10.40 - Kṛṣṇa’s powers are infinite
10.41 – Anything glorious is but a spark of Kṛṣṇa’s splendor
10.42 – Kṛṣṇa supports the universe with a part of Himself

Thus ends Chapter 10 of Bhagavad gita culled from 'Bhagavad gita As it is' by Srila Prabhupada, 'As they surrender' by Bhurijana Prabhu, 'Sarartha Varsini' by Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura and 'Gita Bhusana' by Baladeva Vidyabhusana.

BG Chap 11 - Viśvarūpa darśana yoga

Although Kṛṣṇa is driving Arjuna’s chariot, He pervades and supports the entire universe. Arjuna therefore wishes to see Kṛṣṇa’s all pervading form. On seeing the universal form, Arjuna praises it in reverence. When Kṛṣṇa shows His original form again, it gives bliss to Arjuna and he becomes pleased. Hearing that Kṛṣṇa pervades the entire universe by one of His plenary portions (aṁśa), who is the shelter of all the vibhūtis, the puruṣa who creates the mahat-tattva, Mahā-Viṣṇu, Arjuna became submerged in the highest bliss and desired to see that form. Arjuna is very enlightened and is glad that he has such a great friend as Kṛṣṇa, but now he is thinking that although he may accept Kṛṣṇa as the source of everything, others may not. So in order to establish Kṛṣṇa's divinity for all, he is requesting Kṛṣṇa in this chapter to show His universal form.